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Chapter 2 Gene expression and protein synthesis


1.Genome is like computer programming

If we compare human body to an ultra-super computer created by God, genomes correspond to the program which operates the ultra-super computer.In other words, our body is working according to the orders of genomes. While the man-made computer uses two digit codes (0, 1), the God-made computer uses four digit codes (A, T, G, C).

The proteins which are indispensable for our living are prepared by reading the coding of these genomic sequences.


2.Transcription and translation of genomic information

How the proteins are prepared according to the genomic information? The picture below illustrates the course from genes to proteins.

First, the gene which exists within nuclei is activated by certain stimulation (switch ON). The activated gene then produces a strand-like material called "messenger RNA". This process is called "transcription" which transforms genomic information into protein-synthetic information.

In the next stage, the messenger RNA is transported to "ribosome" in the outer phase of nuclei. The ribosome is like "protein synthesis factory" where the proteins are prepared according to the information carried by the messenger RNA. This process is called "translation".

As explained in the previous chapter, the original genomic information consists of four digits codes - namely A,T,G,C. When the genomic code is translated into protein, further coding is occurred, and three genomic codes are selected corresponding to one amino acid. For example, Arginine is prepared from the genomic sequence AGG, and Alanine is prepared from GCC sequence. The chain of the amino acids can form proteins.

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  • Chapter 1 Genome and our body
  • Chapter 2 Gene expression and protein synthesis
  • Chapter 3 Mechanism of gene expression
  • Chapter 4 Genome type
  • Chapter 5 Genomic diagnostics
  • Chapter 6 Personalized medicine